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美国根深蒂固的种族歧视问题凸显美式人权的虚伪(4)(中英对照)

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III. Systemic Racial Problems in the US

三、美国种族问题难解
Deeply rooted in the history and realities of the United States, racial discrimination is a structural obstacle to the realization of equal rights and status for racial minorities, and also a profound cause of societal breakdown in the country.
种族歧视深深植根于美国的历史与现实之中。这对少数种族权利和地位的平等实现构成了结构性的障碍,也成为美国社会撕裂的深层原因。
The problem has existed since the US history began. Slaughter and displacement of Native Americans occurred throughout the colonial period and the Western Movement period. Over a period of several hundred years from the establishment of the North American colonies to the Civil War, the slave trade flourished, and numerous African slaves died from labor and abuse. The gradual abolition of racial segregation against African Americans did not begin until the mid-20th century. In the past Asian laborers too suffered serious discrimination, with the infamous Chinese Exclusion Act as an example. Such racial discrimination has persisted in various forms throughout the country's history.
美国的种族歧视现象贯穿其历史。在北美殖民地创建和西部开发时期,就一直存在对印第安原住民的屠杀、驱赶问题。从北美殖民地的建立到美国南北战争数百年间,非洲奴隶贸易在这块土地上盛行,大量非洲奴隶被劳役虐待致死,而针对非洲裔的种族隔离制度也直到20世纪中期之后才逐步得到废止。在美国立国及发展过程中,出现了对亚洲劳工移民的严重排斥与歧视问题——如臭名昭著的《排华法案》。诸如此类的种族歧视以不同的形式存在,伴随着美国的发展历史并延续至今。
The US state institutions and its social system have failed in eliminating racial discrimination. Violent law enforcement, deadly shootings, entrapment, stop-and-frisk search have been commonplace. Discrimination against racial minorities in employment, promotion and pay is a hidden practice in large companies and institutions. Financial institutions and housing agencies collaborate to maintain residential separation between different races. The social system's underpinning role and the state institutions' dereliction of duties have subjected US minorities to inevitable discrimination in many respects including politics, economy, culture, and social life.
美国的国家机构和社会制度未能消除种族歧视。执法机构针对少数种族的暴力执法、致命枪击、圈套执法、街头拦截检查已经成为一种常态。大型企业机构针对少数种族的就业歧视、晋升歧视、薪酬歧视已经成为一种潜规则。金融机构和房产中介通过合谋的方式维持种族居住隔离已经成为一种传统。正是由于社会制度的内在支撑与国家机构的不作为,使得少数种族在美国的政治、经济、文化、社会生活等诸多层面不可避免地遭受着全方位的歧视。
All racial minorities in the US suffer racial discrimination to various extents. In essence, the United States is still a country of white Anglo-Saxon Protestants. All other races, ethnic groups, and religious and cultural communities endure levels of discrimination, and either overt or covert infringements of their human rights. Even white Latino people cannot avoid the impact of racial discrimination.
美国所有少数种族都面临着不同程度的种族歧视。美国在骨子里依然是一个白人盎格鲁-撒克逊新教徒的国家,所有不符合这些特性的种族、族群和宗教文化群体都不可避免地遭受到或多或少的歧视,其各项人权受到或明或暗的侵害。非洲裔、拉美裔、亚裔、原住民概莫能外,甚至拉美裔中的白人群体同样也无法避免受到种族歧视的伤害。
In 2008, many groups in the US, including the mainstream media, cheered for the election of African American Barack Obama as president, regarding the event as the end of American racism and a new beginning for the eradication of racial discrimination in the country. However, over the following eight years race relations deteriorated to their worst in over two decades, as police shootings of African Americans still occurred frequently and the "Black Lives Matter" campaign surged in response. Even Obama himself acknowledged that he suffered discrimination during his tenure as president. "What is also true is that … discrimination in almost every institution of our lives … casts a long shadow. And that's still part of our DNA that's passed on," the president said. The end of racial discrimination still remains no more than the "dream" expressed by Martin Luther King.
2008年身为非洲裔美国人的奥巴马当选美国总统之时,包括一些主流媒体在内的不少人都为之欢呼,将其视作美国种族主义的终结以及美国彻底根除种族歧视的新起点。然而八年之间,警察枪杀非洲裔的事件依然频繁发生,“黑人生命也珍贵”运动风起云涌,种族关系处于二十余年来最糟糕的阶段,就连奥巴马本人都表示他在总统任期内绝对面临着种族歧视:“歧视几乎仍存在于我们生活的各个制度中,影响深远,仍是我们基因的一部分”。消除种族歧视依然如同马丁·路德·金所言还是一个梦想。
Since 2016, white supremacy has been renascent in the United States. The extreme right-wing rally in Charlottesville in 2017, and the racist violence that ensued, cast a shadow over race relations in the country.
2016年以来,美国的白人至上主义呈现回潮之势。2017年夏洛茨维尔右翼极端势力游行及其后发生的种族主义恐怖行为使得美国的种族关系蒙上了一层厚厚的阴影。
Racial discrimination in the US has deep and profound causes. It has become a grievous social problem for the country, and is now a flashpoint for social conflict.
美国的种族歧视背后有着深刻而复杂的根源。种族问题将成为美国难以破解的社会难题,甚至成为社会冲突的爆发点。
For all its self-styled positioning as a defender of human rights, the United States has neither the will nor the ability to solve the severe problem of racial discrimination on its own territory. This exposes the institutional and structural defects of the US, and the hypocrisy of its discourse on human rights. The status of race relations in the US is determined by the country's political structure, historical traditions and ideology. Without reform of these, there can be no way to break through the impasse in racial discrimination and end the resulting vicious circle in race relations, and the proper protection of the human rights of racial minorities cannot happen.
美国自诩为“人权卫士”,却无意亦无力解决本国存在的严重种族歧视问题,暴露了其制度性结构性缺陷,凸显了“美式人权”的虚伪本质。美国种族关系的现状受制于其国内的政治架构、历史传统和意识形态,不在这些方面进行改革,就无法改变美国种族关系和种族歧视的恶性循环,少数族裔人权保障也就无从谈起。

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territory ['teritəri]

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n. 领土,版图,领域,范围

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determined [di'tə:mind]

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ideology [.aidi'ɔlədʒi]

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